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LONDON Aug 14 PA – Facebook could be spreading unhappiness through society as well as keeping people connected, research has shown.

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The number one social networking site is strongly associated with declines in well-being, psychologists claim.

Scientists found the more time people spent on Facebook over a two-week period, the worse they subsequently felt.

In contrast, talking to friends on the phone or meeting them in person led to greater levels of happiness.

“On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection,” said study leader Dr Ethan Kross, from the University of Michigan in the US.

“But rather than enhance well-being, we found that Facebook use predicts the opposite result – it undermines it.”

The researchers recruited 82 young adults, all of whom had smartphones and Facebook accounts.

To assess their personal levels of well-being, participants were sent questions by text message at five random times each day for two weeks.

The “experience sampling” technique is a recognised reliable way of measuring how people think, feel and behave in their day-to-day lives.

Participants were asked how they felt “right now”, how worried or lonely they were, and to what extent they had been using Facebook or interacting with other people directly.

Writing in the online journal Public Library of Science ONE, the researchers said higher levels of Facebook use correlated with greater loss of well-being.

Volunteers were also asked to rate their level of life satisfaction at the start and end of the study.

Over the two-week period, satisfaction ratings were found to decline the more people used Facebook.

“This is a result of critical importance because it goes to the very heart of the influence that social networks may have on people’s lives,” said University of Michigan neuroscientist and co-author Dr John Jonides.

There was no evidence that people were more likely to log into Facebook when they felt bad, said the researchers.

In addition, loneliness and Facebook both had an independent impact on happiness.

“It was not the case that Facebook use served as a proxy for feeling bad or lonely,” said Kross.

Further research is planned to look at the psychological reasons for the negative effect of Facebook on well-being.

This is the same Jeb Bush who was governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007, is the son of President George H.

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Bush and younger brother of President George W. Bush. Jeb’s weekend PR blitz is not the kind of activity someone seeking a low profile undertakes. Bush 3.0’s TV tour was a platform to push a book – a perspective on America’s immigration “war”, no less – but was widely seen as an opportunity to dip his toe in the water for 2016.

Jeb said he considered a run for the White House in 2012 but claimed it was “not appropriate”. Well, that would be an understatement, especially when you consider that for every Republican candidate in the 2012 campaign the defining consensus was to never ever mention the disastrous Presidency of George. W. Bush, the effects of which the country is still reeling from.

Jeb, though, believes his brother’s presidency wasn’t as bad as it is made out to be (two long wars, the legality of one which is contested, economic meltdown, etc., etc., among other things) and history will be kinder to George W.’s eight-year term that today’s critics. Especially with that Iraq War thing that keeps getting in the way.

“You know, a lot of things in history change over time,” Jeb told CNN.

“I think people will respect the resolve that my brother showed, both in defending the country and the war in Iraq. But history will judge that in a more objective way than today. The war has wound down now and it’s still way too early to judge what success it had in providing some degree of stability in the region.”

If the former governor – and his elder brother – needs a gauge of stability in the region 10 years after the U.S. invasion of Iraq, and now that the war has “wound down”, he could do worse than check in at this website.

There he would see that so far this month 97 civilians in Iraq have been killed in violent incidents including gunfire, landmines, bombs, and IEDs. In February, the same website reported 349 civilians killed. In January, the site recorded 341 violent deaths. The victims included children, employees of the government’s Education ministry, a teacher, and a farmer and a shepherd who both trod on landmines as they wrangled their vegetables and sheep.

So, Jeb Bush 2016. Forget the old Bush, this is the new Bush. Of course, it’s less than two months since Barack Obama’s second term inauguration so it’s very early days but be certain this Bush 3.0 is weighing up his chances. And if Hillary Clinton gets into the ring as the Democrat contender, as polls suggest that she should, then the next Presidential campaign may well turn into a dynastical death match.

Portugal lacked inspiration in the first half as coach Paulo Bento was forced to line up a makeshift midfield due to injuries to several players including Joao Moutinho, Nani and Silvestre Varela.

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But the hosts reacted to the goal and pressed on in the second half, getting their reward five minutes before the final whistle when captain Ronaldo pounced on a corner and levelled with an easy finish.

“After so many changes to the initial squad call-up due to injuries I am satisfied with our football and the competitive rhythm displayed,” Bento told Portuguese television RTP.

The packed 30,000-strong Algarve stadium, located in the popular tourist region of southern Portugal, had many holiday travellers in the stands but those rooting for the home side were made to wait.

Although Portugal reacted after going behind, and Ronaldo had a lobbed goal disallowed for offside, they lacked efficiency up front for most of the match.

“It’s true we struggled a bit in the first half but, although the Netherlands dominated, there weren’t that many chances. As for our second half, it was class. The goal was a reward for the effort put in,” Bento said.

Portugal midfielder Ruben Micael should have levelled just before the half hour but missed a sitter and Miguel Veloso had a venomous shot saved by keeper Michel Vorm in the second half.

Dutch substitute Klaas-Jan Huntelaar also lost a one-on-one battle against Portuguese keeper Beto in the second-half which would have made it 2-0 but, in the end, it was the hosts who kept pushing forward until Ronaldo eventually equalised.

The Portuguese still top World Cup qualifying Group F after Northern Ireland shocked second-placed Russia 1-0 on Wednesday. Portugal have 14 points and the Russians remain two behind but now have only one game in hand.

(Writing by Daniel Alvarenga in Lisbon, editing by Ed Osmond and Ken Ferris)

The Olympic bronze medallist, unbeaten this season, clocked the fastest time in the world this year of 52.

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83 seconds for victory.

Dalilah Muhammad of the United States was second in 54.09 and her compatriot and 2011 world champion Lashinda Demus took third in 54.27.

“To run under 53 seconds – it is fantastic. The reason for my improvement is that I changed coach and I now train with the boys,” the 26-year-old told reporters.

“They are faster so they are my motivation.”

After London 2012, Hejnova linked up with Dalibor Kupka, former coach to 2004 Olympic decathlon champion Roman Sebrle, and she counts European 400 metres gold medallist Pavel Maslak among her new training partners.

“It’s a fantastic season for me. I’m still unbeatable… and I broke my personal best and the national record,” Hejnova added.

It was only the second track gold for the Czech Republic at a world championships after Ludmila Formanova won the 800 in 1999.

American Demus went off fast and was the first to rise but Hejnova never let her rivals get too far in front, relying on her strength over the second part of the race to reel them in and leave them trailing.

Medal favourite Perri Shakes-Drayton was a disappointing seventh after suffering an injury to her left knee during the race.

“It was going all right until the first hurdle and after the first hurdle my knee just felt funny,” the Briton said.

“It was going so well, leading the heats and the semi. But tonight after the first bend I was just going back and back and back.”

Russia’s Olympic champion Natalya Antyukh did not make the final.

(Writing by Alison Wildey, editing by Justin Palmer)

Aged care providers have written to federal MPs, appealing to them to pass legislation to introduce the government’s aged-care reform package.

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They say that if necessary, Labor should allow opposition amendments – but it’s important to have the package approved before the September election.

 

Thea Cowie reports.

 

The letter from the aged care providers uges MPs to pass the aged care reform with or without amendments.

 

It’s signed by 22 heads of organisations claiming to represent almost a million Australians.

 

They include aged care providers, carers and consumer groups for the elderly.

 

The groups say they’ve been waiting for this legislation to pass since Kevin Rudd was Prime Minister.

 

Chief executive of Catholic Health Australia Martin Laverty is one of the signatories.

 

“What we’ve got at the moment is consumer groups, unions, provider groups all agreeing that this legislation needs to go through the parliament. There might be some areas where the government needs to concede to the opposition requests for amendments. We say to the opposition and the government – strike a deal this week so that we can be confident that the legislation is going to pass through the parliament before the election so that it doesn’t get forgotten with all of the things the parliament has to deal with.”

 

The government’s “Living Longer Living Better” aged-care reform package would cost three-point-seven-billion dollars over five years.

 

Parliament would need to pass five separate bills for it to take effect.

 

Its supporters say the package would enable an extra 40,000 elderly Australians to remain in their own homes in the five-year period.

 

They say it would also give people greater control over how they pay for their care in residential homes.

 

Catholic Health Australia’s Martin Laverty says expanding the choices available to elderly Australians is the most important aspect.

 

“Choice. If there is one reason why this legislation needs to be passed it is because it gives to older Australians greater choice to stay in their own homes longer if that’s what they choose to do.”

 

The groups say another important element of the reforms would be a proposed nine per cent wage increase for aged care workers in coming years.

 

Federal Secretary of the Australian Nursing Federation Lee Thomas says without the pay increase, improvements in aged care will fail.

 

“Wages in aged care is amongst the lowest of the low. It’s nothing for a nurse working in aged care to be earning 300 to 400 hundred dollars a week less than a nurse doing pretty similar work in a public hospital down the street. When budgets get tight at home sometimes they have to make decisions about leaving the sector and going to work in different environments.”

 

But there are only four sitting weeks during which this legislation can pass before the parliament rises for the federal election.

 

During that time the government needs to pass all of its budget measures, changes to the private health insurance rebate and education reforms.

 

The aged care groups say they’ve committed an enormous amount of time, energy and resources to the reforms, in anticipation of them taking effect from July 1.

 

Manager of government business in the federal parliament, Anthony Albanese, says it will be the opposition’s fault if the bills don’t pass.

 

“They’re a confused lot, the opposition. Their natural instinct is to say no to everything. We haven’t had an indication yet of exactly where they stand but we have to assume that they will say no because usually they say no to everything.”

 

But the opposition spokeswoman on ageing, Senator Concetta Fierravanti-Wells says the coalition won’t be rushed into signing off on legislation it’s barely seen.

 

“The debate in the House of Representatives only started on the 14th of May this year. This government, after sitting on the Productivity Commission report for more than 250 days, and then waiting another 327 days before bringing the bills before the parliament. Now the minister is forcing everyone to accept his incomplete and potentially very concerning bills within the next 16 days of parliamentary sessions.”

 

The question though is exactly what question to ask.

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Difficult, right?

And so there we go again getting ourselves in a tough-to-break circle and not knowing quite where to start.

That’s partly because the question definitely not to ask after a taking a hit like this is whether or not it is time to pull out of Afghanistan.

This kind of talk often occurs any time there’s tragic news about an Australian casualty as if – surprise! – it was always thought there was a military presence in Afghanistan for fun or that Australia should only be involved if it is convincingly ‘winning’.

Guess what?

Afghanistan is a mess and will probably always be a mess while a government cannot control a country where Taliban are considered by some to be a preferable alternative to rule from Kabul.

So the question should not be ‘Is it time to withdraw Western military forces?’ but more ‘What kind of condition can the country be left in to give Kabul’s government and the West an end game?’

The weekend’s attack underlined two points.

The first is pretty obvious.

Afghanistan is a dangerous place for anyone and everyone.

(That 22 of the dead were members of Seal Team Six, the unit that led the raid on Osama Bin Laden’s compound, killed by a lucky-to-have-hit RPG shot, also demonstrates how successful that extremely risky operation into Pakistan really was.)

Second, Kabul’s government (and, by proxy, the West) has no control over large sections of the country. The reality is that insurgents rule parts of the country ten years after George W. Bush pushed the button to invade Afghanistan after the 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington DC.

“It was not as bad… two years back, but recently it has deteriorated dramatically,” Nafisa Hejran, a member of the Logar Provincial Council told the New York Times.

The newspaper reported that two weeks ago Hejran received a death threat from insurgents telling her to “quit her job”. Most members of the provincial council in Logar no longer attend council meetings because it is too dangerous.

“The Taliban are setting up checkpoints on the main road, searching peoples’ pockets for ID cards and documents that indicate they work either for Afghan government or the international forces,” she said. “If they find something, then they behead the person on the spot to create fear and terror among the people.”

Yes.

Well.

That would have that effect, wouldn’t it?

So the circle continues. Foreign troops supposedly working to make Afghanistan (and the rest of the world) a better place are killed by extremists who will chop the heads off other locals trying to establish some form of functional government.

Wait.

What was the original question again?

It seemed like old times when the “Welcome Back Lethal” banner was unfurled in the Gabba stands on Sunday night.

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But Brisbane hardly looked like Matthews’ premiership-winning teams of old, squandering a 57-point lead before holding on for a tense seven-point 15.10 (100) to 13.15 (93) AFL win over a resurgent Western Bulldogs.

A week after reeling from coach Michael Voss’ shock departure, the Lions lined up on Sunday night with yet another major distraction hanging over their heads.

Indeed their final home match of the year had become an after-thought after ex-mentor Matthews jumped on a rival ticket hoping to topple Lions chairman Angus Johnson as the race for master coach Paul Roos heated up again.

And a quick glance at the banner amongst the Gabba faithful on Sunday night would only have reminded the Lions players of the looming boardroom stoush.

However, at first the Lions seemed oblivious as they romped to a 13.2 (80) to 4.6 (30) halftime lead.

Brisbane were flying high after Dayne Zorko’s second consecutive running goal – and the Lions’ fifth straight – blew the deficit out to 57 points in the second term before settling for 50 by the main break.

Remarkably the Lions would only kick 2.8 for the rest of the game as the Bulldogs came roaring back.

At one stage the visitors kicked eight out of nine goals to reduce the deficit to just 10 points in the final term.

Lions tagger Andrew Raines appeared to boot a settling major for the hosts to blow the lead back out to 16.

But the Bulldogs’ Luke Dahlhaus made up for a point blank shank by kicking truly for a major moments later before Daniel Giansiracusa received a dubious 50m penalty to make it a five point game in the dying moments.

Somehow the 20,130-strong Gabba faithful willed the Lions to the gripping win – their sixth straight home victory of the year.

The Lions’ sixth win in eight games avenged their surprise 68-point opening round loss to the Bulldogs.

Brisbane had won only five first quarters in 2013 – the equal fewest of the any side.

However, the Lions jumped out of the blocks to lead 7.1 (43) to 2.5 (17) at the first break thanks to back-to-back goals to Daniel Merrett.

But the tide starting turning after Merrett was stretchered off early in the third term with a suspected ankle complaint.

UFO buffs and believers in space aliens are celebrating the CIA’s clearest acknowledgement yet of the existence of Area 51, the top-secret Cold War test site that has been the subject of elaborate conspiracy theories for decades.

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For a long time, US government officials hesitated to acknowledge even the existence of Area 51.

CIA history released on Thursday not only refers to Area 51 by name and describes some of the activities that took place there, but places the US Air Force base on a map, along the dry Groom Lake bed in the Nevada desert.

It also talks about some cool planes, though none of them are saucer-shaped.

The recently declassified documents set the tinfoil-hat contingent abuzz on the internet, though there’s no mention in the papers of UFO crashes, black-eyed extraterrestrials or staged moon landings.

“I’m thinking that they’re probably testing the waters now to see how mad people get about the big lie and cover-up,” said Audrey Hewins, a woman from Maine who runs a support group for people like her who believe they have been contacted by extraterrestrials.

“We’re hoping the CIA is leading up to disclosure” of the existence of space aliens on Earth.

“It’s not something you can look at us and lie about, because we know that they’re here and have been here for a long time.”

George Washington University’s National Security Archive used a public records request to obtain the CIA history of one of Area 51’s most secret Cold War projects, the U-2 spy plane program.

National Security Archive senior fellow Jeffrey Richelson first reviewed the history in 2002, but all mentions of the country’s most mysterious military base had been redacted.

So he requested the history again in 2005, hoping for more information. Sure enough, he received a version a few weeks ago with the mentions of Area 51 restored.

The report is unlikely to stop the conspiracy theories.

The 407-page document still contains many redactions, and who’s to say those missing sections don’t involve little green men?

Some UFO buffs and others believe the most earthshattering revelations will come from Area 51 workers, not an official document.

“The government probably will not release what it knows,” UFO researcher Robert Hastings said.

“My opinion is that whoever is flying these craft will break the story and will reveal themselves at some point in the future. The CIA is not going to release anything they don’t want to talk about.”

It’s not the first time the government has acknowledged the existence of the super-secret installation.

Former presidents Bill Clinton and George W Bush referred to the “location near Groom Lake” in insisting on continued secrecy, and other government references date to the 1960s.

But Richelson as well as those who are convinced “the truth is out there” are taking the document as a sign of loosening secrecy about the government’s activities in the Nevada desert.

The site is known as Area 51 among UFO aficionados because that was the base’s designation on old Nevada test site maps.

The CIA history reveals that officials renamed it “Paradise Ranch” to try to lure skilled workers, who can still be seen over Las Vegas flying to and from the site on unmarked planes.

Beginning with the U-2 in the 1950s, the base has been the testing ground for a host of top-secret aircraft, including the SR-71 Blackbird, F-117A stealth fighter and B-2 stealth bomber.

Some believe the base’s Strangelovian hangars also store alien vehicles, evidence from the “Roswell incident” – the alleged 1947 crash of a UFO in New Mexico – and extraterrestrial corpses.

The CIA history mentions an “unexpected side effect” of the high-flying planes: “a tremendous increase in reports of unidentified flying objects.”

The U-2 and Oxcart planes, which flew higher than civilians believed possible, accounted for half of UFO sightings during the 1950s and ’60s, according to the report.

A likely story, said Stanton Friedman, a self-described Ufologist from Canada.

“The notion that the U-2 explains most sightings at that time is utter rot and baloney,” he said.

“Can the U-2 sit still in the sky? Make right-angle turns in the middle of the sky? Take off from nothing? The U-2 can’t do any of those things.”

Even for those who do not believe, the mystery surrounding the site – situated about 160km northwest of Las Vegas, across kilometres of empty desert speckled with Joshua trees and sagebrush – has been a boon.

One Nevada bicycle event company produces an “X Rides” event that incorporates mountain and road biking near a certain heavily guarded patch of Nevada desert. Las Vegas’ minor league baseball team is called “the 51s.”

Small-town restaurants along State Route 375, officially designated the Extraterrestrial Highway, sell souvenir T-shirts to tourists making their way to the boundary of Area 51, which consists of a no trespassing sign, a surveillance camera and an armed guard on a hill.

This comes after the US Congress approved it, voting 203-58 after a three-hour debate.

The law means Mrs Schiavo’s feeding tube could be reattached following a hearing by a federal district judge.

Terri Schiavo, 41, has been in a persistent vegetative state for 15 years, after her heart stopped beating temporarily in 1990.

The Senate unanimously passed the same measure late on Sunday.

“Today, I signed into law a bill that will allow federal courts to hear a claim by or on behalf of Terri Schiavo for violation of her rights relating to the withholding of food, fluids, or medical treatment necessary to sustain her life,” said Mr Bush in a statement.

“In cases like this one, where there are serious questions and substantial doubts, our society, our laws and our courts should have a presumption in favour of life,” he said.

Mrs Schiavo’s husband Michael, who is her legal guardian, has been petitioning to let her die by removing her feeding tube, saying she had in the past indicated that to be her wish.

The tube was removed on Friday after a long-running legal battle.

However her parents and siblings have campaigned strongly for seven years for her right to live, saying she is still able to live a fulfilling life.

“We are hopeful that the federal courts will follow the will of Congress and save my sister’s life,” said Mrs Schiavo’s sister Suzanne Vitadamo immediately after the vote, according to CNN.

Mr Bush had returned early to Washington DC from his Texas ranch to deal with the matter.

While it was accepted that the legislation would be approved, the case reignited debate over issues including the sanctity of life, states rights and the delineation of constitutional powers.

“The legal issues, I grant everyone, are complicated, but the moral ones are not,” said House Republican Majority Leader Tom DeLay.

“Terri Schiavo is not brain-dead, she talks and she laughs and she expresses happiness and discomfort.”

The feeding tube has been removed twice in the past, but both times campaigners successfully launched moves to have it replaced.

Six weeks after the release of results from the landmark January 30 elections, Iraq still has no new government, but talk of a breakthrough is imminent.

“We have set next Thursday (March 24) as a preliminary date for the national assembly to reconvene,” said Jawad al-Maliky, a member of the Shiite United Iraqi Alliance (UIA).

“We have agreed on the principles of the government, but we do not have yet a final deal on the make-up of the government. We hope that will happen before the assembly meets.”

Fawzi Hariri, an aide to foreign minister and Kurdish negotiator Hoshyar Zebari, suggested: “Within a week to 10 days the whole thing should be done.”

The new parliament held its first session on Wednesday.

Mr Zebari said the Kurdistan Alliance, with 77 seats in the 275-member parliament, had finally agreed on the terms of forming a coalition government with the UIA, the biggest victor with 146 seats.

“All the principles have been agreed upon by all the parties.”

Zebari’s faction of the Kurdish list, the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), had pressed last-minute demands on the Shiites over the status of the northern, ethnically divided oil city of Kirkuk and their peshmerga militia.

The deadlock contributed to the failure this week of MPs to choose an executive body or to schedule a second session.

The sides have drafted a written agreement, which is meant to assure the Kurds that their virtual autonomy in the north after years of suffering under former dictator Saddam Hussein will be protected.

It also commits the next government to taking concrete steps under Iraq’s interim constitution to solving the problem of Kirkuk, from which Saddam expelled tens of thousands of Kurds.

“The issue of Kirkuk has been addressed satisfactorily based on procedures and measures mapped out in the transitional law,” Mr Zebari said.

He said the new government is committed to resettling displaced Kurds in the city and arbitrating property disputes between the Kurds and the Arabs who were brought into Kirkuk to replace them.

But the sides will ink the written agreement, formalising their alliance, only after wooing other parties to sign as well, Zebari’s aide, Mr Hariri said.

The Kurds and Shiites have started courting the secular ex-Baathist Iyad Allawi and leading politicians like outgoing Sunni president Sheikh Ghazi
al-Yawar.

The UIA and Kurdistan Alliance met Allawi’s Iraqi list on Thursday and presented it with the agreement.

“We asked the Iraqi list to give us their vision and idea on whether they will participate in the new government or not. They have given us a positive response,” Mr Zebari said, adding that their participation now hinged on cabinet posts offered to them.

A senior member of Allawi’s list, Imad Shibib, confirmed the talks were progressing.

One stumbling block is finding ministerial posts for the Sunni Arabs, who had been the ruling elite for most of Iraq’s modern history. The embittered minority is seen as fuelling the insurgency and widely boycotted the elections.

“It’s neither in our interest or yours that you do not take part in the political process, because your absence will perpetuate the occupation and terror and will bring down the house on everyone,” UIA-allied cleric Sadreddin al-Kubanji said in his weekly sermon in Najaf.

Meanwhile, the group of Iraq’s Al-Qaeda front-man, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing on Thursday that killed two people and wounded 15, including six US soldiers, in Mosul.